Optimal energy-aware task scheduling for batteryless IoT devices

Abstract

Today’s IoT devices rely on batteries, which offer stable energy storage but contain harmful chemicals. Having billions of IoT devices powered by batteries is not sustainable for the future. As an alternative, batteryless devices run on long-lived capacitors charged using energy harvesters. The small energy storage capacity of capacitors results in intermittent on-off behaviour. Traditional computing schedulers can not handle this intermittency, and in this paper we propose a first step towards an energy-aware task scheduler for constrained batteryless devices. We present a new energy-aware task scheduling algorithm that is able to optimally schedule application tasks to avoid power failures, and that will allow us to provide insights on the optimal look-ahead time for energy prediction. Our insights can be used as a basis for practical energy-aware scheduling and energy availability prediction algorithms. We formulate the scheduling problem as a Mixed Integer Linear Program. We evaluate its performance improvement when comparing it with state-of-the-art schedulers for batteryless IoT devices. Our results show that making the task scheduler energy aware avoids power failures and allows more tasks to successfully execute. Moreover, we conclude that a relatively short look-ahead energy prediction time of 8 future task executions is enough to achieve optimality.

Publication
IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing